Cotton MS Vitellius C III is the only surviving Old English illustrated book describing plants and their uses. Recently the British Library, along with the Bibliothèque nationale de France, digitized the 1,000-year-old illuminated manuscript. The ancient book features illustrations of plants and animals alongside various bodily issues that can be treated by their use or consumption. For example, a snake is illustrated by the passage on sweet basil, an herb that has been known to help fight poisonous bites.
Despite the manuscript being an extensive guide, there have been questions posed by several scholars regarding the piece’s exact use.
“Although it might seem like a practical guide to finding plants and preparing remedies, this manuscript’s uses are debated,” explains the British Library’s Alison Hudson. “First, the illustrations are not always very useful for identifying plants and animals in the wild: take, for example, these depictions of strawberries and elephants [seen below].”
You can flip through the entirety of the guide’s illustrations on The British Library’s website.